Monday, January 23, 2023

New Unicode Consortium CEO

— Mark Davis, President & Unicode Cofounder


In January 1991 I became the first president of the Unicode Consortium, and in that position have presided over the board of directors since then. I’ve had the honor of occupying those roles for just over a gigasecond now, and it's time for a change.

Over time, it became apparent to me, the Consortium’s other officers, and the Board of Directors that our management model was no longer sufficient for what the organization had become over time, and what it needed to be in the future. So, we began to explore a new, more sustainable governance and management model. And an important part of that was succession planning

Among the first major steps in implementing this model was the hiring of Toral Cowieson as our first Executive Director and COO in 2021. Since then, Toral has helped professionalize the management of the Consortium. Working with the Board and the other Officers, Toral has also contributed to strengthening the Consortium’s governance.

The Board and I have also recognized that, as President, I have effectively occupied two distinct roles — CEO and CTO — and that these two different roles require the full attention of two different people. Accordingly, the Board has decided to split these two roles, formally creating the positions of CEO and CTO, while retiring the title of President.

And as its next step — I am delighted to announce — the Board has elected Toral Cowieson as CEO to replace me.

Toral has brought a wealth of experience in leadership across non-profits, corporations, and board service to Unicode. As executive director, she has connected with the people in the organization, provided thoughtful leadership, and instituted and guided changes in our operations and governance.

I’m not stepping off the stage completely. The Board has re-elected me as Chair of the Board, and elected me to the new position of CTO. I’ll also be continuing as chair of the CLDR technical committee as well as contributing to ICU and the UTC in focused areas.

The Unicode Consortium is the forum for companies, countries and other groups to work together on interoperable standards, code, and data — to support internationalizing software around the world. As a simple example, whenever you glance at the date on your cell phone, the text you see is Unicode characters, is formatted for your language according to CLDR language data (including for English), and uses ICU code libraries to make that all work.

As CTO, my main goal this year will be to work with the board, technical groups, and invited experts to continue maintaining and extending that foundation for so much of the world’s software, while formulating a strategy for meeting upcoming requirements and taking advantage of new technologies.

In addition, I am also pleased to announce some additional changes. I’ve worked extensively with each of these people, and have the fullest confidence that they will do great work in these new roles.

  • Peter Constable is a Technical Vice President and the Chair of the UTC. Since 2003, Peter has worked for Microsoft on various projects related to Unicode, internationalization, text display and fonts. He became a Unicode technical director in 2008 and later served as Treasurer.
  • Addison Phillips is the new Chair of the Message Formatting Working Group. Addison is also the chair of the W3C Internationalization Working Group and an active participant in the creation of internationalization standards such as Unicode. He and I are co-authors of IETF BCP 47, which is the standard for language and locale identifiers.
  • Elango Cheran is the Vice-Chair of the recently formed Community Engagement team and an internationalization engineer at Google. He actively contributes to the ICU and ICU4X projects, and to the MessageFormat Working Group.
Additional information available here:
Unicode Executive Officers
Unicode Fellows, Staff and Support
Unicode Technical Committee Chairs
Unicode Organization Chart

Photo by Michael Dziedzic on Unsplash


Support Unicode
To support Unicode’s mission to ensure everyone can communicate in their languages across all devices, please consider adopting a character, making a gift of stock, or making a donation. As Unicode, Inc. is a US-based open source, open standards, non-profit, 501(c)3 organization, your contribution may be eligible for a tax deduction. Please consult with a tax advisor for details.

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Tuesday, January 17, 2023

What’s New in Emoji 15.1?

Doing more, with less

By: Jennifer Daniel, Chair of the Emoji Subcommittee

[image phoenix]

This past Fall, the Unicode Technical Committee announced the delay of Unicode 16.0. This wasn’t without precedent — COVID slowed down the release of Unicode 14.0 in 2020 and the world seemed to survive 😉. Subcommittees were well prepared and adjusted accordingly, discussing what this meant for their respective areas of expertise.

For the Emoji Subcommittee (ESC) — the group responsible for defining the rules, algorithms, and properties necessary to achieve interoperability between different platforms for those smiley faces that appear on your keyboard (Shout out 😁🥰🥹🤔🫣🫡😵‍💫!) — this delay presented an opportunity. Sure, we were so close to exhaling a sigh of relief (the intake period for Emoji 16.0 proposals had just completed). But upon learning we couldn’t ship any new codepoints until 2024 we turned our energy towards recommending new emoji based on existing ones. (These are called emoji ZWJ sequences. That's when a combination of multiple emoji display as a single emoji … like 👩 🏽 +🏭 = 🧑🏽‍🏭).

When Less is More

An incredibly powerful aspect of written language is that it consists of a finite number of characters that can "do it all". And yet, as the emoji ecosystem has matured over time our keyboards have ballooned and emoji categories are about to hit or have hit a level of saturation. Upon reflecting on how emoji are used, the ESC has entered a new era where the primary way for emoji to move forward is not merely to add more of them to the Unicode Standard. Instead, the ESC approves fewer and fewer emoji proposals every year.

But our work is not done. Not by a longshot. Language is fluid and doesn’t stand still. There is more to do! This “off-cycle” gives us a chance to address some long-standing major pain points using emoji. The first one that came to mind: skin-tone.

What is a family?

The encoding of multi-person multi-tone support has matured over the years; however, the implementation can seem random to the average person: While it’s true, all people emoji have toned options (with the exception of characters where you can’t see skin like 🤺) there are … misfits. Some two people emoji offer tone support ( 🧑🏻‍❤️‍🧑🏿) others do not ( 👯). A few non RGI emoji render with tone but with no affordance to change one of the two characters (For example, 🤼🏾‍♂).

And then … There is the suite of family emoji (👨‍👦👨‍👦‍👦👨‍👧👨‍👧‍👦👨‍👧‍👧👩‍👦👩‍👦‍👦👩‍👧👩‍👧‍👦👩‍👧‍👧 👨‍👨‍👦👨‍👨‍👦‍👦👨‍👨‍👧👨‍👨‍👧‍👦👨‍👨‍👧‍👧👩‍👩‍👦👩‍👩‍👦‍👦👩‍👩‍👧👩‍👩‍👧‍👦👩‍👩‍👧‍👧👨‍👩‍👦👨‍👩‍👦‍👦👨‍👩‍👧👨‍👩‍👧‍👦👨‍👩‍👧‍👧👪). These characters include two people, three people, sometimes four and none of them have any tone support (!). We seem to have a lot of family emoji and yet simultaneously not enough.

The 26 “family” emoji can be broken down into four groups:

[image families]

Despite the Unicode Standard containing 26 “family” emoji, each one of these glyphs is overly prescriptive with regard to delivering on a visual representation of a family. The inclusion of many permutations of families was well intentioned. But we can’t list them all, and by listing some of the combinations, it calls attention to the ones that are excluded.

What even is a family? For some, family is the people you were raised with. Others have embraced friends as their chosen family. Some families have children, other families have pets. There are multi-generational families, mutli-racial families and of course many families are any combination of all of these characteristics and more.

Fortunately, we don’t need to add 7000 variants to your keyboards (even this would fall short of capturing the breadth of "family" as a concept). Instead we can juxtapose individual emoji together to capture a concept with some reasonable level of specificity — not too unlike arranging letters together to create words to convey concepts 😉

[image toned families]

For emoji keyboards to advance in creating more intuitive and personalized experiences the Emoji Subcommittee is recommending a visual deprecation of the family emoji. This small set of emoji will be redesigned as part of a multi-phase effort to “complete the set” of toned variants for the remaining multi-person emoji. This of course begs the question: when there are as many families as there are people in the world, is there an effective way at conveying the concept of “family” without being overly prescriptive in defining what is and is not a family? Well, thankfully icons can do a lot of heavy lifting without requiring very much detail.
[image before-after]

When is an emoji running for the police or getting chased by them?

Another area the ESC is actively exploring is how the semantics of emoji sequences can differ when writing directionality changes. Some emoji characters have semantics that encode implicit directionality but when the string is mirrored and their meaning may be unintentionally lost or changed.

[image rightwards]
Left to Right Emoji Sequence
Quickly running towards an “exciting” police chase


[image leftwards]
Right to Left Emoji Sequence
Running away from the coppers


What, if anything, can we do to aid in ensuring that messages are meaningfully translated be them tiny pictures or tiny letters? As part of 15.1 we’re proposing a small set of emoji with strong directionality — with an initial focus on people — to face the opposite direction. Soon you too can run towards or away from … excitement.

Emoji 15.1

Given that the intake cycle of emoji proposals for Unicode 16.0 ended last July, the Emoji Subcommittee has also decided to temporarily delay the intake of Unicode Version 17.0 proposals until April 2024. Fortunately, you won’t have to wait until then to get new emoji. Among the list of recommendations includes 578 characters (most of them the candidates described above to support directionality). The list also includes a few humble additions including a broken chain, a lime, a non-poisonous mushroom, a nodding and shaking face, and a phoenix bird. Each one of these leverages a unique valid ZWJ sequence of emoji so while they look like atomic characters made of a single codepoint they are composed of two or more codepoints.

[image candidates]

Broken chain is the result of 🔗💥, with a variety of meanings, such as freedom, breaking a cycle, or perhaps a broken url ;-). Like the bi-directional emoji touched on above, nodding face and shaking face are the result of 🙂↔️and 🙂↕️ respectively. Oh, and of course there is a phoenix rising from the ashes (🐦🔥), a perfect metaphor to capture where we are today.

The Unicode Technical Committee (UTC) will review the required documents at its first meeting of 2023 in January – and if these candidates move forward, you can expect an update from the UTC later this Spring and Summer.


Support Unicode
To support Unicode’s mission to ensure everyone can communicate in their languages across all devices, please consider adopting a character, making a gift of stock, or making a donation. As Unicode, Inc. is a US-based open source, open standards, non-profit, 501(c)3 organization, your contribution may be eligible for a tax deduction. Please consult with a tax advisor for details.

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Wednesday, December 21, 2022

Unicode in 2022

2022 Image

Hello Everyone!

As we go into the New Year, the Unicode team thought we’d share some highlights from this past year. From source-code spoofing to preserving indigenous languages, the Unicode team has had another full year, including expanding the number of characters that appear on billions of devices around the world.


Nearly 150,000 characters!

On the character side, we reached a total of just shy of 150,000 characters (149,186 to be exact). Of the 4,489 characters added in the 15.0 release, the biggest set was 4,192 ideographs for use in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. There are also two new scripts, Nag Mundari and Kawi. Nag Mundari is a script used to write the Mundari language of India, a language with 1.1 million speakers. Kawi is an important historic script of insular Southeast Asia, found in inscriptions and on artifacts in several languages dating from the 8th to the 16th centuries — and is undergoing a revival today amongst enthusiasts.

And we can’t forget the 20 new emoji characters — we’re looking forward to seeing which are the most popular: shaking face? Goose? Maracas? Pink heart? If you’re involved in implementing emoji, you’ll also want to look at latest changes in UTS #51 Unicode Emoji.

See the Unicode15.0.0 page for more details. We’re also changing how we do releases — for more, see 2023 Release Planning.

The Launch of ICU4X

ICU is used in every major device and operating system; it’s how you see a date or number on your phone, for example. This new project, ICU4X, was created to solve the needs of clients who wish to provide client-side internationalization for their products in resource-constrained environments and across many programming languages. After 2½ years of work by Google, Mozilla, Amazon, and community partners, the Unicode Consortium has published ICU4X 1.0, its first stable release. Built from the ground up to be lightweight, portable, and secure, ICU4X learns from decades of experience to bring localized date formatting, number formatting, collation, text segmentation, and more to devices that, until now, did not have a suitable solution. For details, see Announcing ICU4X 1.0.

When does i ≠ і?

Can you tell the difference between i and і? Yeah, most people can’t. The first set of changes to help counter source-code spoofing were included in the 15.0 versions of the UAX #9 Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm, UAX #31 Unicode Identifier and Pattern Syntax, and UTS #39 Unicode Security Mechanisms.

For 2023, there is a new draft UTS #55 Unicode Source Code Handling, providing guidance for programming language designers and tooling developers, and specifying mechanisms to avoid usability and security issues arising from improper handling of Unicode. More changes are on their way for UAX #9, UAX #31, and UTS #39 as well.

Åge Møller, Πέτρος Νικόλαος Καρατζής, ராஜேந்திர சோழன்

We’re making great progress on internationalized formatting of people’s names. What does that mean? Software needs to be able to format people's names, such as John Smith or 宮崎駿. The formatting can be surprisingly complicated: for example, people may have a different number of names, depending on their culture — they might have only one name (“Zendaya”), only two (“Albert Einstein”), or three or more. So the software needs to handle missing or extra name fields gracefully.

There are many more complexities — for more details, see Formatting people’s names.

You have 2 unread messages.

Or, you have 3 items in your cart. Whenever a computer needs to construct a sentence using “placeholders” such as 3, it is formatting a message. The current industry standard is ICU’s message formatting; a project started about 3 years ago, with the goal of improving on that to build a more robust and extensible mechanism. There is now a Tech Preview in ICU — we’d urge developers to try it out!

See message-format-wg for details on the syntax and message2/package-summary.html for the API (note that the ICU’s convention for tech previews is to mark as Deprecated), and the test code in MessageFormat2Test.java for examples of usage.

(There are of course other fixes, upgrades and new features in ICU: see ICU 72 and ICU 71 for more details.)

Māori, ‎Wolof, тоҷикӣ, ‎‎کٲشُر, ‎ትግርኛ, कॉशुर‎, ‎মৈতৈলোন্, ‎ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ

In CLDR, we now have 95 languages at the Modern level (suitable for full UI internationalization), 6 at the Moderate level (suitable for “document content” internationalization), and 29 at the Basic level (suitable for locale selection). We added a tech preview of formatting for person names, plus additions for Unicode 15.0 (emoji names and search keywords), names for new scripts, new CJK collation, and so on. For more information, see CLDR v42.

Revitalization and Preservation of Indigenous Languages

The Nattilik language community was unable to use their language reliably for even simple, everyday digital text exchanges such as email or text messaging. The Typotheque Syllabics Project, an initiative based out of Toronto and The Hague, Netherlands, undertook research with language keepers across various Syllabics-using Indigenous communities in Canada. By collaborating with Nattilik language keepers and elders in the community, key issues the Nattilik community of Western Nunavut faced were identified, and it was discovered that there were 12 missing syllabic characters from the Unicode Standard. The Consortium worked with the Typotheque Syllabics Project to add 16 characters to the script to support Nattilik and other languages in Unicode version 14.0, and improved the glyphs in Unicode version 15.0. See this blog post from June.

The Past and Future of Flag Emoji

Despite being the largest emoji category with a strong association tied to identity, flags are by far the least used. Flag emoji have always been subject to special criteria due to their open-ended nature, infrequent use, and burden on implementations. The addition of other flags and thousands of valid sequences into the Unicode Standard has not resulted in wider adoption. They don’t stand still, are constantly evolving, and due to the open-ended nature of flags, the addition of one creates exclusivity at the expense of others. Curious to learn more? Read more about the Past and Future of Flag Emoji.

Available Now! New YouTube Playlist and Technical Quick Start Guide

On September 28th, Unicode held a webinar on the “Overview of Internationalization and Unicode Projects” for Unicode enthusiasts. Unicode technical leadership and other experts shared background on our core projects with participants from more than 30 countries. If you missed the webinar, no worries! The recorded sessions are available on this YouTube playlist. And if you are new to Unicode and internationalization or simply want a refresh, you can also check out our Technical Quick Start Guide. This handy guide explains what Unicode is, including answering the question, “What is Internationalization and Why it Matters.” There are also useful links to more detailed information and how you can get involved. Read more here.

Support Unicode 💞💕💌💯✨🌟🤠🛟🎁

Finally, if you are already a contributor to — or member of Unicode (or your company or organization is!), thank you, Danke, Děkuju, धन्यवाद, merci, 谢谢你, grazie, நன்றி, and gracias! What we have accomplished is only possible because of supporters like you.

And if you want to support Unicode’s mission to ensure everyone can communicate in their languages across all devices, please consider adopting a character, making a gift of stock, or making a donation. As Unicode is a US-based non-profit, 501(c)3 organization, your contribution may be eligible for a tax deduction. Please consult with a tax advisor for details.

Monday, November 14, 2022

The Unicode® Standard – 2023 Release Planning

By Peter Constable, Chair of the Unicode Technical Committee

[image] At the Q4 Unicode Technical Committee (UTC) meeting held from November 1-3, our member representatives unanimously agreed to a release plan for 2023 and tentative plan for 2024. Along with some tooling updates, our plans aim to ensure that we are more agile to meet the evolving internationalization landscape and better able to meet the needs of Unicode members and other consumers of the Standard.

More information can be found in the Release Management Group’s Recommendations for 2023-2024.

BACKGROUND

For several years now, the UTC has worked on an annual cycle for new versions of The Unicode Standard and related specifications. New versions used to be released in March of each year, but in 2021, due to COVID-19, the release was delayed until September. 

MOVING FORWARD

Going forward, our plan is to continue with a new release each year in September. That annual, predictable cycle works well for Unicode's other major projects—CLDR and ICU—and helps implementers in their planning. 

In 2023, we will keep up that cadence with a September release, but we also need to take some time to evaluate and update our processes for developing each new version of the Standard.

Therefore, the 2023 release will be a “dot” release: Unicode 15.1. It will include important updates to Unicode Standard Annexes and to the Unicode Character Database, and have a limited set of new characters — but new scripts and most other character additions will be held until the 2024 release. A major new area is the planned release of a Unicode Technical Standard for avoiding source-code spoofing, along with associated changes in other specifications.

Regarding emoji, if there are any new emoji in the 15.1 release, they would leverage existing code points, as was done for the 13.1 release, rather than the addition of entirely new characters.

2024 AND BEYOND

For 2024, we anticipate returning to our regular cadence, with a major release in September 2024. Unicode 16.0 will include additional new scripts, emoji and other characters, as well as other updates.



Learn more about how you can support the Unicode Consortium and our mission, including information on our Adopt-a-Character program, here!
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Tuesday, November 8, 2022

Available Now! New YouTube Playlist and Technical Quick Start Guide


Youtube Image

By Elango Cheran

On September 28th, Unicode held a webinar on the “Overview of Internationalization and Unicode Projects” for Unicode enthusiasts. More than 180 people across 30 countries joined us for this online event.

The Consortium is pleased to now make available the videos from this event. If you are new to Unicode and internationalization or want an overview of the most recent projects, check out our new YouTube playlist and Technical Quick Start Guide.

Our Technical Leadership and other experts provide a handy overview on such topics as:
Also included in the playlist is the audience Q&A with Elango Charan, the webinar’s emcee,  and Mark Davis, Cofounder and President of Unicode.

The Unicode Technical Quick Start Guide is also now available. The guide explains what Unicode is, including answering the question, “What is Internationalization and Why it Matters.”  There is also an overview of the technical committees and useful links to more detailed information and how you can get involved.



Learn more about how you can support the Unicode Consortium and our mission, including information on our Adopt-a-Character program, here!
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Friday, October 28, 2022

MessageFormat 2 Technical Preview Available

[image] The MessageFormat Working Group is pleased to announce that it has released a Technical Preview implementation of the current state of the MessageFormat 2 specification in ICU4J in the recent ICU 72 release. The Working Group has been working on a specification for a successor to ICU MessageFormat, which has been an industry staple for internationalized software for more than two decades.

Owing to the prevalence of MessageFormat not just as an API for software, but also given its syntax serving as a de facto serialization format for the localized messages sent to the API, the Working Group has put careful consideration into interchange and interoperability. Some goals of the new specification include promoting best practices for internationalization, including compatibility with localization industry supported XLIFF. Another goal includes a definition of the data model of the API input separate from the syntax to allow for multiple compliant syntaxes to be compatible. Similarly, the specification includes a registry of interfaces for dependent formatting functions, in order to cleanly separate implementation from specification, allowing users to specify custom formatting functions and plug in their own implementations.

MessageFormat 2 builds on top of the experience from using and maintaining ICU MessageFormat and a number of other localization systems and workflows. It improves the placeholder syntax, improves escaping rules inside the translatable content, replaces nested selectors with top-level multiple selectors, and allows the use of custom formatters.

For example:

match {$photoCount :number} {$userGender :equals}
when 1 masculine {{$userName} added a new photo to his album.}
when 1 feminine {{$userName} added a new photo to her album.}
when 1 * {{$userName} added a new photo to their album.}
when * masculine {{$userName} added {$photoCount} photos to his album.}
when * feminine {{$userName} added {$photoCount} photos to her album.}
when * * {{$userName} added {$photoCount} photos to their album.}

More examples and the formal definition of the grammar can be found in the specification draft.

We invite you all to try the Tech Preview available now in ICU4J and provide us any and all feedback. Similarly, please note that the MessageFormat 2 is still a work in progress, and therefore we rely on your questions, suggestions, and issues to critically inform how we iterate on the specification. Real world experience will allow us to address potential shortcomings in the ways that MessageFormat 2 will get used in practice.

For information about using the Tech Preview, refer to the API docs, ICU 72 download page, and the ICU4J User Guide.

To leave feedback about MessageFormat 2 (specification, syntax, etc.) or the Tech Preview implementation, please visit the working group’s repository at github.com/unicode-org/message-format-wg, where you can open a new Discussion topic or file a new Issue.


Over 144,000 characters are available for adoption to help the Unicode Consortium’s work on digitally disadvantaged languages

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Friday, October 21, 2022

ICU 72 Released

ICU LogoUnicode® ICU 72 has just been released. ICU is the premier library for software internationalization, used by a wide array of companies and organizations to support the world's languages, implementing both the latest version of the Unicode Standard and of the Unicode locale data (CLDR). ICU 72 updates to Unicode 15, and to CLDR 42 locale data with various additions and corrections.

ICU 72 and CLDR 42 are major releases, including a new version of Unicode and major locale data improvements.

ICU 72 adds two technology preview implementations based on draft Unicode specifications:
  • Formatting of people’s names in multiple languages (CLDR background on why this feature is being added and what it does)
  • An enhanced version of message formatting
This release also updates to the time zone data version 2022e (2022-oct). Note that pre-1970 data for a number of time zones has been removed, as has been the case in the upstream tzdata release since 2021b.

For details, please see https://icu.unicode.org/download/72.

Over 144,000 characters are available for adoption to help the Unicode Consortium’s work on digitally disadvantaged languages

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Thursday, October 20, 2022

Unicode CLDR v42 available

[image] Unicode CLDR version 42 is now available and has been integrated into version 72 of ICU. In CLDR 42, the focus was on:
  1. Locale coverage. The following locales now have higher coverage levels:
    1. Modern: Igbo (ig), Yoruba, (yo)
    2. Moderate: Chuvash (cv), Xhosa (xh)
    3. Basic: Bhojpuri (bho), Haryanvi (bgc), Rajasthani (raj), Tigrinya (ti)
  2. Formatting Person Names. Added data and structure for formatting people’s names. For more information on why this feature is being added and what it does, see Background.
  3. Emoji 15.0 Support. Added short names, keywords, and sort-order for the new Unicode 15.0 emoji.
  4. Coverage, Phase 2. Added additional language names and other items to the Modern coverage level for more consistency (and utility) across platforms.
  5. Unicode 15.0 additions. Made the regular additions and changes for the new release of Unicode, including names for new scripts, collation data for Han characters, etc.
CLDR provides key building blocks for software to support the world's languages (dates, times, numbers, sort-order, etc.). For example, all major browsers and all modern mobile phones use CLDR for language support. (See Who uses CLDR?)

Via the online Survey Tool, contributors supply data for their languages — data that is widely used to support much of the world’s software. This data is also a factor in determining which languages are supported on mobile phones and computer operating systems.

There are many other changes: to find out more, see the draft CLDR v42 release page, which has information on accessing the data, reviewing charts of the changes, and — importantly — Migration issues.

In version 42, the following levels were reached:

Level Languages Locales* Notes
Modern 95 369 Suitable for full UI internationalization
Afrikaans‎, ‎… Čeština‎, ‎… Dansk‎, ‎… Eesti‎, ‎… Filipino‎, ‎… Gaeilge‎, ‎… Hrvatski‎, ‎Indonesia‎, ‎… Jawa‎, ‎Kiswahili‎, ‎Latviešu‎, ‎… Magyar‎, ‎…Nederlands‎, ‎… O‘zbek‎, Polski‎, ‎… Română‎, ‎Slovenčina‎, ‎… Tiếng Việt‎, ‎… Ελληνικά‎, Беларуская‎, ‎… ‎ᏣᎳᎩ‎, ‎ Ქართული‎, ‎Հայերեն‎, ‎עברית‎, ‎اردو‎, … አማርኛ‎, ‎नेपाली‎, … ‎অসমীয়া‎, ‎বাংলা‎, ‎ਪੰਜਾਬੀ‎, ‎ગુજરાતી‎, ‎ଓଡ଼ିଆ‎, தமிழ்‎, ‎తెలుగు‎, ‎ಕನ್ನಡ‎, ‎മലയാളം‎, ‎සිංහල‎, ‎ไทย‎, ‎ລາວ‎, မြန်မာ‎, ‎ខ្មែរ‎, ‎한국어‎, ‎… 日本語‎, ‎…
Moderate
6
11
Suitable for full “document content” internationalization, such as formats in a spreadsheet.
Binisaya, … ‎Èdè Yorùbá, ‎Føroyskt, ‎Igbo, ‎IsiZulu, ‎Kanhgág, ‎Nheẽgatu, ‎Runasimi, ‎Sardu, ‎Shqip, ‎سنڌي, …
Basic
29
43
Suitable for locale selection, such as choice of language in mobile phone settings.
Asturianu, ‎Basa Sunda, ‎Interlingua, ‎Kabuverdianu, ‎Lea Fakatonga, ‎Rumantsch, ‎Te reo Māori, ‎Wolof, ‎Босански (Ћирилица), ‎Татар, ‎Тоҷикӣ, ‎Ўзбекча (Кирил), ‎کٲشُر, ‎कॉशुर (देवनागरी), ‎…, ‎মৈতৈলোন্, ‎ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ, ‎粤语 (简体)‎
* Locales are variants for different countries or scripts.


Over 144,000 characters are available for adoption to help the Unicode Consortium’s work on digitally disadvantaged languages

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